هرچندبارها درباره وضعيت اضطراري قلعه زيويه صحبت شده اما هنوز اقدامي اساسي براي نجاتبخشي آن صورت نگرفته و ديوارها و تالار ستوندار آن در حال تخريب هستند. باستانشناسان براي اين قلعه 3000 ساله اعلام وضعيت قرمز کرده و معتقدند که در صورت عدم رسيدگي، به زودي قلعه زيويه فرو ميريزد.
Tappeh Ashraf is located in the east of Esfahan, near the bank of the Zayandeh-Rud River, adjacent to the Sasanian bridge of Sharestan (Šahrəstān). The Tappeh is currently considered to be the oldest archaeological mound in the city of Esfahan.
“During the excavation we discovered three highly decorated potteries dating to the early Parthian dynasty”, said Alireza Jafari-Zand, the director of the archaeological team at Tappeh Ashraf.
It seems the Iranian artisans of the Parthian period had chosen the local nature as the theme to decorate their potteries.
“The potteries design depicts swans in a repetitive order which is interesting as Tappeh Ashraf is adjacent to Zayandeh Rud and the river is the host to migratory swans every year”, said Jafari-Zand.
Jafari-Zand dates the potteries to the early Parthian dynastic era (248 BCE – 224 CE), and emphasised the importance of this discovery, as the Parthians can now be placed firmly on the archaeological map of Esfahan for the first time.
“The Parthian dynasty was missing from the historical map of Esfahan, as we had no archaeological evidence for their presence. Fortunately with this discovery and the recovery of the artefacts, the city of Esfahan found her missing Parthian past”, said Jafari-Zand.
Jafari-Zand is hoping the future archaeological research in the area will shed further light on Esfahan during the Parthian dynasty.
The Esfahan Province (also Isfahan) has a varied landscape of plains and hills, and in the west and southwest it is bordered by the high ranges of the Zagros mountains and her provincial capital, also called Esfahan (sfahān ), is Iran’s second largest city, located about 340 km south of Tehran.
The history of Esfahan Province can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent years Iranian archaeologists uncovered her prehistoric past ranging from Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze to Iron age.
In the historical period, E. Herzfeld suggested that the Esfahan region is to be equated with the ancient Elamite province of Siamshki, a district attested from the late 3rd millennium BCE. During the 2nd millennium it was administered, together with the district of Elam, by a viceroy accountable to the Elamite king, who resided at Susa in Khuzestan.
During the 8th century BCE, the province became one of the principal districts of the first Iranian dynastic Empire, the Medes (728-550 BCE). The name of the province under the Median dynasty is unknown; however, the modern city of Esfahan was called Gaba, where Tappeh Ashraf is located.
After the collapse of the Median dynasty and uniting Iranians under one single political umbrella by Cyrus the Great in 550 BCE, the province become part of the Achaemenid dynastic Empire (550-330 BCE). During this period a new city was constructed (west of modern Esfahan) named Aspāndānā (from the Old-Persian spādānām, meaning ‘of the armies’) to serve as a garrison city. The new city together with the Median ‘Gaba’ (today’s Jay), forms the modern city of Esfahan.
Esfahan like the rest of Iran was occupied by Macedonians in 4th century BCE, and after its liberation by the Arsacid kings, it became part of the third Iranian dynastic empire, the Parthians. Esfahan was the centre and the capital city of a large province, which was administered by Arsacid governors.
During the succeeding dynasty, the Sasanians (224-651 CE), Esfahan Province (Mid. Pers. Spahān) was governed by the members of the imperial family and served as the residence of the crown prince. There were seven major towns of the province during the early Sasanian period, including Kahṯa, Gār, Mihrbon, Darrām, Gay, Jāvarsān (Qoh), and Sārūye. By the end of Sasanian dynasty first four towns were abounded and fell into ruins.
After the invasion of Iran by Arabs in 7th century, the province was faced with an exacerbated phase of intense de-urbanisation. The invading army wiped out Jāvarsān and Sārūye and the majority of its inhabitants were massacred. The population of Gay (including Spahān) who also didn’t accept Islam were either killed or captured and sold into slavery.
بخشي از سقف مسجد تاريخي ماسوله که حدود 5 سال قبل مرمت شده بود تخريب شد. اين در حالي است که فصل بارندگي و سرما به زودي در اين شهر آغاز ميشود و خطري جدي اين مسجد تاريخي را تهديد ميکند.
خبرگزاري ميراث فرهنگي ـ گروه ميراث فرهنگي ـ اين جسد كه مربوط به 2700 سال قبل است دريك گورستان باستاني در جزيره كرت واقع در يونان كشف شده است.
LONDON, (CAIS) — Remains of a Parthian dynastic edifice located on the hilltop of Mosalla Tappeh (archaeological mound) was flattened to prepare the ground for the construction of a Mosalla.
The news of the destruction of Iranian heritage has angered the nation, particularly the cultural figures and heritage enthusiasts.
According to Mehrnush Najafi-Ragheb, the spokeswoman for Municipality Islamic Council of Hamadan, the remains of the Parthian edifice was destroyed over two years ago.
“Until two years ago the remains of the ruins of the fortress, which was possibly Parthian was standing and was destroyed when the construction of the Mosalla began”, said Najafi-Ragheb to the Persian service of CHN.
She added: “during 2006 council’s session, [the mound] was considered as a cultural and religious site and as a result construction for the Mosalla began.”
She failed to explain how the Islamic Republic destroying a 2000 year old monument, which was an important part of Iranian heritage and history, could be considered as ‘cultural’.
The site was fenced up and restricted to public for the past two-years under the pretence of protection of the ancient monument.
Artefacts recovered from the site in the past few decades, many kept in Hamadan Museum, suggest the mound was Parthian, with a strong possibility of a Median dynastic foundation. Some experts believe the destroyed monument was a Temple for the Zoroastrian deity, Anahita (ānāhitā).
Archaeologists believe in ancient times this 600×400 meter mound and the adjacent Hegmataneh (Ecbatana) were possibly connected and together formed the ancient and the original city. The famous Shir Sangi (Stone Lion) of Hamadan stands on the slope of the mound.
According to historical records, the Parthian edifice which was named as Tappeh Dokhtar (the Virgin’s Mound) was used as a defensive-structure and remained in its original format until 1791 when Aqa-Mohammad-Khan Qajar conquered Hamadan, destroyed the monument and left an abundant ruin.
The ancient Iranian monuments named ‘dokhtar meaning ‘daughter and virgin’ usually referring to the deity Anahita.
In 1978, the Imperial Ministry of Culture and Art planned the revitalisation of the ancient monuments in the city of Hamadan including commissioning extensive research on the three main historical mounds and finally their complete restorations, which was scrapped after the rise of Anglo-American orchestrated regime of clerics to power in 1979.
Apart from the cultural and heritage catastrophes brought along by the Islamic Republic’s new Prayer ground in Hamadan, it has inflicted environmental devastation too.
According to the report over 400-trees were cut down to prepare the site for construction. It has been announced that more trees are expected to be cut down.
These destructions have taken place, while no detailed archaeological study has ever been carried out over the mound, and the rest of the ancient mound remains under the treat of further destructions.
Many voiced their objections, signifying there was enough lands in and around Hamadan which could have been used for the purpose of Mosalla construction, avoiding destroying Iranian heritage and cutting the trees which many consider them as the ‘lungs of Hamadan’.